What happened to the gentle, unassuming king; his wife, Marie Antoinette; and their two children during the French Revolution. Contends that the manner in which members of the Constituent Assembly dealt with the king bears the imprint of behavior that typically follows traumatic events.
Louis-Auguste was overlooked by his parents who favored his older brother, Louis, duc de Bourgognewho was regarded as bright and handsome but who died at the age of nine in Louis-Auguste, a strong and healthy boy but very shy, excelled in his studies and had a strong taste for Latin, history, geography, and astronomy and became fluent in Italian and English.
From an early age, Louis-Auguste was encouraged in another of his interests, locksmithing, which was seen as a useful pursuit for a child.
His mother never recovered from the loss of her husband and died on 13 Marchalso from tuberculosis. Throughout his education, Louis-Auguste received a mixture of studies particular to religion, morality, and humanities. By the time that Louis-Auguste and Marie-Antoinette were married, the French people generally disliked the Austrian alliance, and Marie-Antoinette was seen as an unwelcome foreigner.
His fear of being manipulated by her for imperial purposes caused him to behave coldly towards her in public. One questioned, "Can the King do it? One suggestion is that Louis-Auguste suffered from a physiological dysfunction,  most often thought to be phimosisa suggestion first made in late by the royal doctors.
The argument for phimosis and a resulting operation is mostly seen to originate from Stefan Zweig. Most modern historians agree that Louis had no surgery    — for instance, as late asthe Prussian envoy, Baron Goltz, reported that the King of France had definitely declined the operation.
This would not have been possible if he had undergone a circumcision; at the very least, he would have been unable to ride to the hunt for a few weeks afterwards. Joseph described the couple as "complete fumblers"; however, with his advice, Louis began to apply himself more effectively to his marital duties, and in the third week of March Marie Antoinette became pregnant.
Eventually, the royal couple became the parents of four children. The first one, ina few months after the birth of her first child, is mentioned in a letter to her daughter, written in July by empress Maria Theresa. Madame Campan states that Louis spent an entire morning consoling his wife at her bedside, and swore to secrecy everyone who knew of the occurrence.
Marie Antoinette suffered a second miscarriage on the night of 2—3 November Armand lived at court with the king and queen until he left them at the outbreak of the revolution because of his republican sympathies, and Zoe was chosen to be the playmate of the Dauphin, just as Ernestine had once been selected as the playmate of Marie-Therese, and sent away to her sisters in a convent boarding school before the Flight to Varennes in Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. He had an enormous responsibility, as the government was deeply in debt, and resentment of "despotic" monarchy was on the rise. He himself felt woefully unqualified to resolve the situation.
As king, Louis XVI focused primarily on religious freedom and foreign policy. While none doubted his intellectual ability to rule France, it was quite clear that, although raised as the Dauphin sincehe lacked firmness and decisiveness. His desire to be loved by his people is evident in the prefaces of many of his edicts that would often explain the nature and good intention of his actions as benefiting the people, such as reinstating the parlements.
When questioned about his decision, he said, "It may be considered politically unwise, but it seems to me to be the general wish and I want to be loved.
Granting non-Roman Catholics — Huguenots and Lutheransas well as Jews — civil and legal status in France and the legal right to practice their faiths, this edict effectively nullified the Edict of Fontainebleau that had been law for years.
The Edict of Versailles did not legally proclaim freedom of religion in France — this took two more years, with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of — however, it was an important step in eliminating religious tensions and it officially ended religious persecution within his realm.
So, inTurgot was dismissed and Malesherbes resigned, to be replaced by Jacques Necker. Necker supported the American Revolutionand he carried out a policy of taking out large international loans instead of raising taxes. Again this failed, so Louis convoked the Assembly of Notables in to discuss a revolutionary new fiscal reform proposed by Calonne.Marie Antoinette [Sofia Coppola] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Based on the book Marie-Antoinette: The Journey by Antonia Fraser, Sofia Coppola's Marie Antoinette is a powerful and sympathetic film of the tragic life of France's iconic and misunderstood eighteenth-century Queen.
Shot entirely in France. Directed by Sofia Coppola. With Kirsten Dunst, Jason Schwartzman, Rip Torn, Judy Davis.
The retelling of France's iconic but ill-fated queen, Marie Antoinette. From her betrothal and marriage to Louis XVI at 15 to her reign as queen at 19 and to the end of her reign as queen, and ultimately the fall of Versailles. + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day?
Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. On 16 May , at the age of fifteen, Louis-Auguste married the fourteen-year-old Habsburg Archduchess Maria Antonia (better known by the French form of her name, Marie Antoinette), his second cousin once removed and the youngest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and his wife, the formidable Empress Maria Theresa..
This marriage was met with hostility from the French public. The life of Queen Marie Antoinette of France; books about Marie Antoinette, Louis XVI and the French Revolution. The national bestseller from the acclaimed author of The Wives of Henry VIII.
France’s beleaguered queen, Marie Antoinette, wrongly accused of uttering the infamous “Let them eat cake,” was the subject of ridicule and curiosity even before her death; she has since been the object of debate and speculation and the fascination so often accorded .