Sir Isaac Newton — The late 17th and early 18th centuries saw the achievements of the greatest figure of the Scientific revolution: Cambridge University physicist and mathematician Sir Isaac Newtonconsidered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. Newton, a fellow of the Royal Society of Englandcombined his own discoveries in mechanics and astronomy to earlier ones to create a single system for describing the workings of the universe. Newton formulated three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitationthe latter of which could be used to explain the behavior not only of falling bodies on the earth but also planets and other celestial bodies.

This is primarily a list of Greatest Mathematicians of the Past, but I use birth as an arbitrary cutoff, and two of the "Top " are still alive now. Click here for Thales of miletus atomic model longer List of including many more 20th-century mathematicians.

Click for a discussion of certain omissions. Obviously the relative ranks of, say Fibonacci and Ramanujan, will never satisfy everyone since the reasons for their "greatness" are different.

Please e-mail and tell me! Following are the top mathematicians in chronological birth-year order.

By the way, the ranking assigned to a mathematician will appear if you place the cursor atop the name at the top of his mini-bio. Earliest mathematicians Little is known of the earliest mathematics, but the famous Ishango Bone from Early Stone-Age Africa has tally marks suggesting arithmetic. The markings include six prime numbers 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 in order, though this is probably coincidence.

By years ago, Mesopotamian tablets show tables of squares, cubes, reciprocals, and even logarithms and trig functions, using a primitive place-value system in base 60, not The Greeks borrowed from Babylonian mathematics, which was the most advanced of any before the Greeks; but there is no ancient Babylonian mathematician whose name is known.

Also at least years ago, the Egyptian scribe Ahmes produced a famous manuscript now called the Rhind Papyrusitself a copy of a late Middle Kingdom text. It showed simple algebra methods and included a table giving optimal expressions using Egyptian fractions.

Today, Egyptian fractions lead to challenging number theory problems with no practical applications, but they may have had practical value for the Egyptians. The Pyramids demonstrate that Egyptians were adept at geometry, though little written evidence survives. Babylon was much more advanced than Egypt at arithmetic and algebra; this was probably due, at least in part, to their place-value system.

But although their base system survives e. The Vedics understood relationships between geometry and arithmetic, developed astronomy, astrology, calendars, and used mathematical forms in some religious rituals. The earliest mathematician to whom definite teachings can be ascribed was Lagadha, who apparently lived about BC and used geometry and elementary trigonometry for his astronomy.

Apastambha did work summarized below; other early Vedic mathematicians solved quadratic and simultaneous equations. Other early cultures also developed some mathematics. The ancient Mayans apparently had a place-value system with zero before the Hindus did; Aztec architecture implies practical geometry skills.

Ancient China certainly developed mathematics, in fact the first known proof of the Pythagorean Theorem is found in a Chinese book Zhoubi Suanjing which might have been written about BC.

Thales may have invented the notion of compass-and-straightedge construction. Thales was also an astronomer; he invented the day calendar, introduced the use of Ursa Minor for finding North, invented the gnomonic map projection the first of many methods known today to map part of the surface of a sphere to a plane, and is the first person believed to have correctly predicted a solar eclipse.

His theories of physics would seem quaint today, but he seems to have been the first to describe magnetism and static electricity. Aristotle said, "To Thales the primary question was not what do we know, but how do we know it. It is said he once leased all available olive presses after predicting a good olive season; he did this not for the wealth itself, but as a demonstration of the use of intelligence in business.

Since his famous theorems of geometry were probably already known in ancient Babylon, his importance derives from imparting the notions of mathematical proof and the scientific method to ancient Greeks.After the Flood, by Bill Cooper.

Chapter 1 The Knowledge of God amongst the early Pagans. So that we may bring the subject we are about to study into its proper perspective, we must first allow that many of our preconceptions regarding ancient .

Visionlearning is a free resource for the study of science, technology and math (STEM). Visionlearning is a free resource for the study of science, technology and math (STEM).

The Presocratics were 6 th and 5 th century BCE Greek thinkers who introduced a new way of inquiring into the world and the place of human beings in it. They were recognized in antiquity as the first philosophers and scientists of the Western tradition.

This article is a general introduction to the most important Presocratic philosophers and the main themes of Presocratic thought. List of the Greatest Mathematicians ever and their Contributions.

B.C. Thales of Miletus - Greek philosopher; developed theory of matter based upon water; recorded the attractive properties of rubbed amber and lodestone.: c B.C. Heraclitus - Greek philosopher; first of the Greeks to develop a theory of the human soul; he praised its creative resources and spoke of the importance of self-exploration; he spoke of the logos that is common to all.

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